"The hypothesis of this essay is that the word 'modern' designates two sets of entirely different practices which must remain distinct if they are to remain effective, but have recently begun to be confused. The first set of practices, by 'translation', creates mixtures between entirely new types of beings, hybrids of nature and culture. The second, by 'purification', creates two entirely distinct ontological zones: that of human beings on the one hand; that of nonhumans on the other. Without the first set, the practices of purification would be fruitless or pointless. Without the second, the work of translation would be slowed down, limited, or even ruled out." (Latour 1993, 10).
The multiple presences that are constantly produced only become more complex, more hybrid, less linear and more fragmented. This is why Latour's suggestion of skipping the idea of modernity and speaking about processes of purification and mediation instead, resonates with the idea of YUTPA. In every YUTPA the process of purification and translation/mediation also occur. In every product or process we create the dichotomy between human nature and non-human nature and at the same time we accept the hybrids almost immediately in their own right.
YUTPA does not distinguish between real and unreal presences, nor does it distinguish between natural and unnatural presence - like social, cyborg, modern, indigenous or technological presence. It accepts any presence as a given upon that one can act upon and it accepts any presence as a factor that can influence our well-being and survival. The way trust and truth develop is defined by the orchestration and constellation of presences over time, which each have their own specific YUTPA description. Nevertheless, while partaking in the variety of mediated presences, natural presence of the actors involved remains to be distinct. In the support for this natural presence also the ultimate values for trust are to be found.