In many cases, small islands of different countries are important tourist destinations, where number of visitors can exceed number of local people. For such islands tourism might be the main or one of the man income sources and is strongly supported by local authorities. Tourism also offers an opportunity to introduce more diverse economic activities and employment and have advantages that are not directly related to the economy: “…renewed interest in local arts and crafts, improvements in educational, leisure, communication, medical and other facilities in the host countries, a general awareness of the man-made and natural aesthetic assets, and a broadening in the outlook of the islanders [Briguglio, 1996]. “ On the other hand, carrying capacity* of small islands is usually low; therefore tourism can causes physical, ecological, economical and socio-cultural harm to the environment of the island and can result in the ecological deterioration of island systems [Baorong, et al., 2008]. In other words, the sustainable tourism system of small island needs to have an ecological and environmental balance and it is important to find ways to achieve it without making any harm to other sub systems.
*Carrying capacity is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment [Carrying capacity (n.d) in Wikipedia].
Briguglio L., Briguglio M., “Sustainable tourism in small islands. The case of Malta”, in: Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States: Case Studies, London, UK: Cassell/Pinter, 1996
Baorong H.,Zhiyun O., Hua Z., Huizhi Z., Xiaoke W., “Construction of an eco-island: A case study of Chongming Island, China”,in: Ocean&Coastal Management 51, 2008 (575-588)
Wikipedia contributors. Carrying capacity.. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. July 22, 2004, at 10:55 UTC. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrying_capacity, Accessed 14-11-2014.
The host-guest relationship is one of the main factors that influence the social-cultural aspect of tourism. Tis relationship is very important in order to make sustainable transitions possible and establish relationship of trust.
The Doxey's Irridex Model (Fig.1) suggests that: residents’ attitudes toward tourism may pass through a series of stages from “euphoria,” through “apathy” and “irritation” to “antagonism”, as perceived costs exceed the expected benefits.
Fig.1 The Doxey's Irridex Model
This model can be related to the model proposed by Butler, where he explains the lifecycle tourism that leads or to decline or to rejuvenation (Fig.2).
Fig. 2 Tourism lifecycle according to Butler
The combination of these two models explains key points and connections between level of irritation and destination response to tourism (Fig.3).
Fig. 3 Irritation index table according to Butler and Doxey reseraches
Journal of Sustainable tourism specifies extinsic and intrinsic factors that affects the resident and tourist relations (Fig.4).
Fig.4 Factors affecting resident reactions to tourism
It is very hard to agree upon a definition regarding sustainable tourism. As a result of many efforts to develope one worldwide langyage about sustainability in tourism,The Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GCTC), set some criterias egarding social, environmental,economic and cultural impacts of tourism. The criterias are devided in four groups:
Environmental impacts (including consumption of resources, reducing pollution, and conserving biodiversity and landscapes);
Texel is a small island in the Dutch Waddenzee, where each year in summer every second person on a island is a tourist. This puts a lot of strain onto the natural resources of the island. The local people, or Texelaars, live quite an environmentally friendly life. They are used to the limited resources and are very proud of the beautiful nature on the island, so they do quite a lot to sustain the environment.
Presence of tourists on the island however, means that they needed more resources from the 'overkant'(mainland): the other side of the Waddenzee. They needed to import fresh water and food in order to satisfy the needs of the island population.
However, the tourist sector now makes up about 80% of Texels income.
This situation challenges the people on Texel and involves economic, ecological and socio-cultural challenges.
The average age of the Texel tourist was in 2010 42.1 years old. One third of these people were
Germans, around two third were Dutch, a big part of them (47%) had a higher education in 2013.
Their main interests are actively enjoying nature, beach eating and drinking, 72 % find the boat trip an important island holiday feeling. People on holidays on Texel mostly come in small groups, in 2010 the average of a group was 2, 9 persons. The most common way to spend the night is sleeping in a bungalow, there are some bungalow parks on the island but most people prefer a separate/individual bungalow. These bungalows are often booked for a week, but some people’s stay is shorter, like a midweek or a weekend, the average duration of a holiday on Texel is about a week, 4, 7 days (2013).
It appears that the tourists are in general very enthusiastic about the island, they valued it with a 8,6 in
2010. This is also visible in the fact that a lot of the visits are return visits, for instance 86 percent of the tourists had been on the island before. 70 percent would definitely go again to the island, and 22 percent most likely. Nevertheless there are some critics and points of improvement, for example some people find the island not multifaceted, with other words, they find the amount of activities not so diverse, and especially they miss covered events/inside activities for moments with bad weather.
Hercules, E. (2012). Initiatiefvoorstel ‘Toerisme en Recreatie: De Texelse maat’. Councel decision taken on 19 September 2015. Visited on 14 January 2015, on
VVV Texel. (2013). Factsheet Toerisme op Texel 2014 [Databestand]. Texel. Geraadpleegd op [15 januari 2015]
VVV Texel. (2010). Texel, Monitor Texelbezoek 2010 [Databestand. Texel. Geraadpleegd op [15 januari 2015]
In the subsystem of Texel as Host, there are several important actors. Actors are the groups of people involved in the system. On the island there are four kind of actors: inhabitants, guests, tourists and visitors.
The inhabitants - defined as a person or animal that lives in or occupies a place.
Guests - people staying at a certain place because they were invited there. It is possible that guests will use the facilities made for the tourists.
Tourists - traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.
Visitors - people going to a certain place for a shorter period of time, who visit for a different reason than guests or tourists, for example to go to a business meeting.
In this work the focus is mainly on tourists, because Texel serves as a host mainly for tourists, because most people visiting Texel are tourists. There are other sectors that are closely related to the tourism sector and involve other types of actors, such as the food sector, acommodation sector, entertainment sector, cultural sector and infrasturctural sector. The actors of these sectors are: restaurants, hotels, entertainment and cultural organizations and institutions. These sectors are connected by all kind of bonds. If something is changed in one sector, others may benefit or experience drawbacks from this change. Therefore all these sectors should be considered when thinking about the tourism.
Oxford dictionaries . (z.d.). Retrieved 14 January 2015, from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/inhabitant
Fig.1 Main cities and tourist attraction points
Texel position itself as a touristic place. A lot of activities are offered for people coming to the island, such as:
Cycling: there is bicycle hire in most of Texel villages, so it is possible to explore island in a sustainable way. The Texel Tourist Office has different theme cycling routes, like, for example, a lamb cycle route: a 35km long route past the sheep meadows on the island. The accompanying guide is provided together with the package with lots of information about Texel sheep and lambs, the best way to roll a sheep back upright and what the coloured markings on the fleeces mean.
Walking: This is another way to explore the island. TDifferent pathways were made between the meadows which made inaccessible areas available. Moreover, Texel tourism centre offers different walking tours
Events: Many popular events, such as spring lamb week, bird watching day, SunBeats, Culinary Texel, etc. They are held on Texel during the year and are famous for their friendly atmosphere.
Museums: One of the possibilities is to visit Ecomare-centre for wadden and North Sea. Ecomare is the oldest seal sanctuary in Europe.Others are 'Kaap Skil in Oudeschild, Cultural-historical Museum, Aviaton- and Wartimemuseum, Whaler's cottage, Local History Museum, Shipwreck and Beachcombing Museum Flora, Life of a fish, Lighthouse;
Excursions: this is a nice and easy way to explore the island. There are different cycing, walking and museum excursions available.
Other activities include: different sport activities, shopping possibilities, art and farm visits, etc.
Source: Texel Tourism Centre
Some of sustainable initiatives related to the current sub-system have already being implemented on the island.
One of the examples is that some restaurants on the island make use of ingredients grown on the island as much and often as possible. Those ingredients come from some interesting ecological local initiatives like dairy products and vegetables from Farm the Novalishoeve. All products from this farm are ecologic. Many restaurants get at least some of their ingredients from the Novalishoeve and serve them for tourists, visitors and guests of the island.
Texel Brouwerijis very popular by the tourists. The Texelse Brouwerij is a brewery that produces local beer and is a famouse brand of Texel Island. Brewery uses local ingredients such as water that comes out of the dunes and the malt grows in the polders on Texel. The used barley, hops and yeast are imported to the island, because it is not possible to produce them locally. Texel beers is served in many restaurants and bars along the island.
The Zelfpluktuin is another example of sustainable facilities for tourists and guests of the island. The philosophy of the Zelfpluktuin is that people can pick their own fruit, vegetables and flowers directly from the garden. The garden is ecological, this means for instance that no chemicals are used to keep mould away. A robot is designed to kill mould using UV. This promotes tourism, but mostly between June and October. It is also a great way to educate people on ecological farming. This form of eco-tourism does not mean that islanders should make compromises of any kind, so this is a great way of promoting sustainable tourism.
Moreover, accommodation sector is trying to apply energy saving solutions and increase use of renewable resources. Hotel de Lindeboom was redesigned in 2002 is the first hotel on Texel with energy saving applications like a heat pump and presence detection connected with heating and lighting. In 2008 this representative was followed by Hotel Greenside. Besides a heat pump and presence detection, water saving showers, taps and energy saving central heating were added.
Impact on other sub-systems
On one hand, tourism has positive impact on the economy of Texel Island. According to the data from the report about Tourism, recreation and free time, the Texel municipality and the TESO boat, the total amount of money that tourists spent on the island in 2014 reaches 275 million euro. Moreover, another positive impact of tourism on the island is that it creates more jobs for local people.
On the other hand, tourists put enormous ecological pressure on the island every year by using up a lot of the natural resources of Texel. One of the examples is drinking water. The consumption of water increases during summer seasons, when many tourists come to the island. Water supply is provided by two water pipes that connect island with the mainland. Nowadays the total drinking water consumption of the island is 1.6 million m3 , which is 3 times more than would be needed to satisfy needs of only local people.
This issue could be easily reduced by reducing the amount of tourists. In 2012 the Gemeente Texel approved the strategy to limit the amount of beds for tourists on the island. That means that in order to build new places on the island, the same amount of old places has to be demolished. This measure is believed to help to preserve the nature and the atmosphere of being on the island. (raadsbesluit nummer 084 genoemen op 19-02-2012.)
The relationship beteen local people and people, who visit the island is very important. At the moment it is hard to define the current state of this relationship according to the Doxey's Irridex Model.Therefore final design of a sustainable transition for Texel Island in terms of our sub-system “Texel as host” has to consider following aspects: routine research to manage and establish the impact of tourism on daily life of local people, desired and undesired changes on communities, what are the demands of visitors, willingness of community to participate and benefit from tourism, etc. It can be done using the YUTPA-analysis, which we decided to do twice: based on data we have and our assumptions and after making some interviews with local people on the island. Also the YUTPA-analysis in case of our sub-system topic has to present interests of both tourist and texelaar. The comparison of the results would make it easier for us to understand the potential and give ideas on the final proposal.
Making a YUTPA analysis we considered the importance of all aspects for both tourists and texelaars in terms of our sub-system “Texel as host”. The YUTPA analysis shows with the values we gave the different sub systems how important the Texelaars/tourists find the specific topic. We did the analysis twice. Once for the tourists and once for the Texelaars. The analysis is devided into four parts: place, time, relation and action. These four parts are again devided into aspects. These aspects were given a number between 0 and 10, according to how important the specific aspect is to the concerned people. We specified that the value of 6 will represent the average importance of each aspect and then divided all our assumptions according to that scale.
Place: We consider the ‘Place’ quarter to be of an extremely importance to the islanders, because this is the main factor that differs them from 'overkanters', a term they use for people from the other side of the Waddenzee.
Time: The time quarter has more variations between its four aspects. We think the duration of engagement is important for local people. They can be negative or positive about the duration of tourists’ stay on the island, but as long as it influences their daily life it will be of high importance. The same attitude can be applied to integrating rhythm and synchronizing performance aspects, because the less is influence on rythm of the daily life of local people the better. However, in terms of making moments to signify we assume that it is not of that much of importance, because for local people this is just daily life and this is as important as for any other person.
Relation: Aspects of these quarter we found to be more important than average in general, because we consider local people of Texel Island as a small community where everything is closely related, therefore communion field, role and reputation are of high importance.
Action: We think that this quarter depends a lot on the stage of the tourism on Texel Island according to the Butler’s lifecycle diagram and Doxey’s Irridex model. As it was stated before, we assume that the tourism on Texel Island is in the transition from the development stage to the consolidation stage. According to Butler and Doxey, this means that the attitude of residents towards tourists is more formal than friendly and is seen as a source of income. Therefore we consider “Action” quarter aspects to be of the average importance for local people.
Fig.1 YUTPA analysis-Texelaar
Place: The number per category shows the importance of the subject for tourists. One means that the subject is not important, and ten means that it is most important for the tourist. The first category is situated agency. This is about activities in relation to the island. Whether the tourists want to be active or not does not matter they come to enjoy the island, they want to be engaged with the island as much as possible. The second category is Environmental impact. Because the trips of the tourists only last on average around 3 nights it is likely that they care little about the impact they have, it is too short to see the impact, and as they are on holidays, they might not like to worry about it too much. Emotional Space is about the feeling of being on an island. Based on research done in 2013, 53 percent of the tourists gave the “island feeling” as a reason to visit Texel. You could say that this sense is very important for the visitor. The last category in the quarter of “place” is Body sense, this is about the way people feel. When people are on holidays they want to relax, enjoy and not worry. They want to have a good time and feel good. Body sense is very relevant for them.
Time: The second quarter in blue is about “time”. The first category is Duration of engagement. Duration of engagement in the area where you live is very long, on holidays this will always be shorter and especially on an island as Texel where every stay is around 3 nights. For tourists it is also not important to integrate rhythm. Tourists are not bound to appointments or other sorts of schemes. Most tourists will do what they feel like doing at a certain moment of the day. For them it is of no importance to integrate this rhythm with the islanders apart from boat departures and reservations in restaurants or hotels. In the same sense Synchronizing performance is of small importance because tourists do what they feel like doing and this is not necessarily synchronized with acts of the islanders. Making moments to signify means creating memories that are precious to you. Of course this is one of the goals of every tourist in the world. For the Texel tourist it might be a little bit less of importance because most of them are not going to see and experience something new but just to have the trusted feeling of peace, quietness, fresh air, coziness and ambiance.
Relation: The third quarter represents the main theme of “relation”. The category of communion is high rated because most people go with friends or family. The holidays are moments to be together and have a good time together. Engagement is about collaborating in activities, this is what visitors of the island do. Hiking, cycling, shopping, going to the beach, visiting Ecomare, Swimming, eating out, doing sports, visiting a museum and visiting the lighthouse are activities that most people engage in. Because visits are short-term reputation might be of less importance then back home. Because tourists know that they are rather anonymous and will leave in a few days. Being on holiday’s means that people are temporarily free from their jobs so at those moments it is of no big importance what your job or role is in everyday life.
Action: To finish there is the quarter of “action”. By Tuning we mean the way tourists act to other people. Tourists on Texel tend to be rather self-orientated, they don’t necessarily mean to meet new people. The island feeling is important for them so most likely a part of the tourists want to get engaged with the local Texelaars, but the main goals stay relaxing, enjoying nature and quietness. Reciprocity is “I give, you give”. Of course it works like that in terms of money, tourists give money in exchange for an experience. But it will not be about delivering an experience to the Texelaars, it is really orientated on their own experience. In that sense negotiation is of more importance as this is more related to money. Quality of deeds is a ten because people on holiday want their actions to give a positive feeling.
Fig.2 YUTPA analysis- Tourist
Tourists and Texelaars comparison.
For both the groups place is a main factor, it is why islanders are Texelaars and “overkanters” become tourists. The main difference is that Texelaars worry about the long term environmental impacts of their actions because it is about their home. Tourists feel not enough connection to the island to change their behaviour. This shows that the problem of the environmental pressure tourists put on the island is not only the matter of large number of people coming to the island, but also the fact that being sustainable while on the island is not important to them. If we heighten their awareness of the importance of the ecological footprint the tourism sector might become more environmentally friendly.
Time. For both sides the engagement with others will be short term because the average duration of stay is around 3 days. Integrating rhythm is for the islanders very important because their main source of income is tourism, it is important for them to plan their time so that it resonates with the rhythm of the tourists. The other way around, there is no reason for tourists to do the same. Creating memories is more important for tourists because that is their goal for that timespan, for the islanders this is of less importance because it is their everyday life.
Relations are important for the islanders; it is about their own neighbourhood, their reputation towards tourists determines the tourist’s view on the island. Because they are all Texelaars the feeling of communion is high. For the tourists their everyday role and reputation are not so important being on holidays, still the feeling of communion plays a big role being on holidays with your friends or family.
The quarter of action. The main difference is that both parties give something in return for something else, but it is mainly the case that tourists give money and the islanders give the opportunity of an experience in return. There is no equal relation of giving experiences. Another difference in this topic is the quality of deeds, this should be high for tourists but for the islanders it is just their everyday life and therefore quality of deeds is no main goal.
Based on the research regarding the current sub system, following conclusions can be made:
1. In order to propose sustainable hosting/tourism system for Texel, it is necessary to keep the environmental and ecological balance in mind. The main obstacle that prevents Texel from being self-sustainable are tourists themselves. Because of the size and small capacity of the Island, tourism sector has impact that is hard to handle relying only on local resources.
2. Local people of Texel Island are very positive about tourists. This aspect can and should be used in order to make the sustainable transitions on the island happen.
Our aim is to propose a solution where, on one hand, the impact of tourism on economy would be high, but on the other hand, the burden on the ecological level would be minimal. It is not wiseto minimize the number of tourists, but it might be possible to change the way they think about the island. Therefore a tool is needed to raise the awareness of tourists about what happens on the island and what are the sustainable goals and how they can contribute towards achieving them.
To make the field of tourism more sustainable. That means to make the things sustainable that separate the tourists from the islanders.
To do this, two fields are distinguished; activities and use of tourists.
This is about activities that most tourists do. According to (Gemeente Texel, 2013) most tourists do: Walking, cycling, shopping, going to the beach, visit Ecomare, eating out, visit family, do sports, work, visit a museum, visit the lighthouse and expierence nature. Those activities are way too broad and differently focused to be captured in one plan for making it sustainable. Places as Ecomare, restaurants, museums and hotels have their own different ways of being sustainable, this will make the activities of tourists sustainable too. Besides, a lot of those places are already sustainable, think of the Zelfpluktuin, the Texelse Brewery and a lot of restaurants are already for example making use of merely local products.
Tourists use electricity, heat, cold, food and water. Islanders have the same needs. Of course there should be a sustainable solution for all those needs, like green electricity, earth warmth and local food. But these uses are not what divides tourists from islanders. That does not mean that it is less important, but the field of sustainable tourism should focus mainly on tourism.
Conclusion; use is not specially part of tourism but an overall concept. Activities are for a big part already sustainable and not coverable by one approach. This is captured in scheme below.
Figure 1 (own image)
So how to come up with one overall covering approach for tourism? If tourists visit a lot of sustainable places and initiatives the holidays could work as a catalyst to get used to being energy saving etcetera. Therefore it is important that sustainability is as clearly visible as possible, important is to focus on chains. It should be in some way visible that the bread the tourists eat in their hotel in the morning comes from a bakery they pass on their bicycle an hour later and that the grain for this bread originates from a grain field they pass in that afternoon. When they switch on their lights in the evening it should be visible that the origin of this energy comes from either the wind turbines or the solar panels on the roof. In short, these chains should be made visible. It should be no effort for the tourist to get grip on these chains, maybe they even experience it subconsciously. Connecting chains and network is the biggest issue with sustainability. This is very hard to achieve but maybe the chains on an small island as Texel can be made easier comprehensible. Visitors will get aware of those cycles and get used to it. In this way it will work as an example and catalyst for the mainland. An island is self-sustaining at the moment when every cycle is closed on the island itself, this must be made visible. An idea could be to give tourists staying in a certain hotel discount on a visit to connected suppliers like a brewery or a bakery. A side advantage of our concept is that unclosed chains will be noticed. For example a restaurant will discover a supplier of apples from the other side of the island while he is still getting his apples from the mainland, they can connect. This will at the same time have a positive effect on their imago because they have another “local connection”. Hotels and restaurants will do their best to make more and more connections on the island and less on the mainland, this accelerates achieving the goal of becoming self-sufficient.
Because there are so many different important elements in being sustainable, deciding whether something is sustainable is difficult because sometimes the chains are not transparent. We thought everyone should have the opportunity to establish for tourists themselves whether they think a tourist attraction is sustainable or not. To be able to do this, people should be well informed. The difficulty in this is that the way to convey this information should be interesting and easily readable; when you're on vacation you don't want to go through a pile of information before choosing your restaurant.
There are many different ways to make our idea come true. On this stage of our design we assume that the best way to arrange everything properly would be something similar to a “map”. It can be a map, booklet with different maps or application for the smart phones or even some signs or routes marked, or anything else directly integrated into the island environment itself on different scales. However, making it clear and easy to use is the main goal for every of these cases. Therefore we decided to look into the map creating techniques and principles and see what we can use for the proposal in case of our sub-system.
Most important is to define what your goal is and who your audience is. It is important to have clear objective and message. It is necessary to think how many people and how they are going to use the final product. According to our idea we want the final product to be used by both local people and tourists, as our main goal is to connect both these groups and make them work together. The tourists can make decisions such as where to stay, where to go, what and where to eat, based on the information and the sustainability chains highlighted in our design. In our vision the system also must work as an example/catalysator for the mainland. If tourists see that the sustainability chains are connected within the island, they could think of solutions for their own city or neighbourhood. On the other hand, local people can be aware of the network available on the island and make the decisions of how they want tourists to see their hotel, restaurant, etc. Do they want to have an image of restaurant that uses local products or maybe it is a restaurant that uses renewable energy and therefore it is sustainable in other way, but the aim of our design is to make it clear for tourists.
Our final product should be organized in a way that it is clear and understandable for the user. It is important to plot the information in several layers, where main and additional information are distinguished. That should cost no efforts from tourist’s side and maybe it can be done even on subconscious level. It has to be defined which would be the best way to organize and make the proposed idea to work the mostly efficient. This is something we have to decide after more research is done. Moreover, the end result has to be clear and simple to use. Therefore it is important to decide which information is important and relevant and which information should be kept away.
Also we should think about privacy aspects, because some of the chain parts might not be willing to be exposed and seen by the competitors. We should think how to keep all the actors in the chain unique and make them all benefit of such a design
To make the transition from current sub-system to the future sustainable one, following aspects have to be taken into account:
According to the results of the interviews that have been performed on the Texel Island, it can be concluded that most probably, the tourism industry on Texel Island is in the exploration and involvement state (For explanation see 1.2). According to the data collected from the interviews, local people are very tourist oriented and happy about tourist presence on the island. This is a very great advantage that can be used as a tool to make sustainable transitions possible. Moreover, different initiaives are already present on the island, such as Kaasboerderij Wezenspyk, Slagerij Goenga, etc.
However, the other threat here is the right choice of the companies for the first step of our design proposal. On one hand, it is easier to follow the first pathway described before, because this pathway offers us more opportunities and possibilities to develop the final product. However, on the other hand, companies that already applied some sustainable strategies can have more financial sources and therefore involving them at the beginning might have negative result on companies from the 2nd group of our scheme, because they can lose some of the costumers and opportunity to achieve sustainability goals because of lack of funds. Therefore, our strategy will focus on the companies that want to be sustainable and attract more attention to this desire.
One of the possible threats for our design proposal on how to make Texel as a host more sustainable is the willingness of companies to participate in this project. We assume that there has to be a strategy to convince society of the island about benefits that our solution can bring.
What is the best legal way to approach companies to convince them that it is a good idea to make the information public? This question is very important for our design proposal, because our concept is based on the willingness of companies to participate. But what if it will be hard to convince them to do so? Therefore we decided to analyse what are the strategies to get people involved for collaboration.
Tom Wolf, the PhD, who specializes in the community psychology made some research on how to maximize the involvement of the community in the process. Some of his ideas are interesting and can be adapted and used for the research.
Tom Wolf describes the community as those, who are the mostly affected by the issue, and according to him the main key of involving any community is to do with the community and not doing for the community.
He describes main elements which are essential for true collaboration
- Building the trust
- Providing safe place.
- Accommodating the members
- Being inclusive
- Honoring diversity of membership through understanding and practice.
- Sharing governance and decision making.
To make the involvement of the community possible, it is important to answer following questions:
- Who might you engage?
- Who cares about the issue?
- What are strengths and gaps?
- How much you go about engaging them in your work?
Also Tom Wolf states, that this is important to define the formal and informal community sectors. Formal sector is part of the community that represents the major institutions such as government, education, health, business. Informal Sectors: parts of the community best connected to the residents themselves, such as neighborhood associations, PTO’s and church groups. These sectors have different influence on the community and to make the engagement of the community possible, it is important to involve grassroots organizations and their leaders. It is important, because according to Tom Wolf: “The main reason for someone to participate is that someone they know asks them.”
Other aspect is to keep community involved in the process, because it is very common that people lose their interest in the participation or their expectations do not match the reality. To handle this problem Tom Wolf presents 6R’s: Role, Respect, Relationship, Reward, Results, and Recognition. These 6 aspects create the motivation of community members. Moreover, community has to be in the charge of the norms and changes, because only then norms and changes stop being someone else’ program and are adapted more easily. A good example of community being in charge of norms and changes are smoking and seatbelts.
Conclusion: According to this strategy, the one of the best ways to involve more parties and increase their willingness to participate, it is necessary to convince one reliable representative. That will make other participants to feel more safe and positive about the project.
Our solution will be a mobile application. It will be a digital map and all the different themed bicycle routes are in there, like the Lammetjesroute, the Jan Wolkersroute. So people don’t have to buy all the different routes anymore and can choose on the day itself which route they feel like doing. The tourist information is already planning to get rid of the paper vouchers and make it digital, so this idea resonates. In the year statistics of 2013 it appears that 86 percent of the visitors has been before on the island and 70 percent claims that they will come back for sure. So Texel is a place where people come regularly, they will keep the app on the phone and the next time could start cycling again without having to go to the tourist information. Whichever route they choose, the tourists will follow the route via their smartphone and along the way there will appear dots on their screen which means a restaurant, farm, shop or other place with local products. When people click on the dot they will get a small informative screen with in the case of a farmer shows the companies he delivers his cheese to.
There could appear a small video where the farmer explains how he treats his sheep. The other way around the cyclist can click on the button of a restaurant and will get information about the opening hours and see the connections with all the farmers he gets his products from. Also the videos of the farmers will appear again, so that people can see where the cheese came from they just ate and how the cows are treated, maybe they will decide to visit the farmer or find a place where they can buy the cheese themselves.
The goal is to make tourists aware of all the local food chains, show them how beautiful it is to use local products and show how satisfying it is to eat so pure. They will get more feeling with the products, products of the season, and differences in taste. This knowledge, feeling and awareness they will take with them to their normal everyday lives and be more aware of what they buy in the supermarket.
A group as big and diverse as tourists on Texel that do so many diverse activities is hard to make sustainable. It would be necessary to make all the activities they do and all the places they visit energy efficient. The only way to do this is to start with the core, the mind-set of people. Tourists need to be aware of sustainability. The answer to this is letting them experience the value of using local products.
On Texel a lot of companies are already sustainable and using local products, this should only be more visible to tourists so that they will notice and take this information back home. The visualisation of local use will be realised by making a digital cycling app showing all sustainable companies and connections between producers and sellers. Hopefully they will continue a bit of this local-use lifestyle in their everyday lives.