Reinforcing change

The third stage refers to the development of new strategies: managers starting to emphasise higher, managerial values as well as reinforce mechanised forms of managing. Management methods become increasingly strict so employees feel reduced to mechanisms. Alternative forms of communication develop to bypass the managers.

Managerial methods include having staff ‘constantly’ (2.31.3 and 1.5.1) report to line managers and supervisors about whether they are meeting deadlines, production and delivery targets, and are improving performance (Nicholls 2004) (6.31.3):
‘Others undergo a lot of pressure and job stress because of the daily targets’ (3.18.2).
The ‘hard' measures (Rittel and Weber 1973; Peters and Waterman 1982; Tjosvold 2007) increasingly structure behaviour, rather than concepts like welfare and care (Höpfl 1992; Wilson 1999; Fineman 2000). Longhurst employees have to discuss performance targets through staff development initiatives (SDIs) as demands rise and quality regulations become scrutinised. Personal dignity and humaneness become under-valued.