Design Lessons from Nature

Life’s Principles

1) Evolve to survive
- Replicate Strategies that work
- Reshuffle Information
- Integrate the Unexpected

2) Be Resource (Material and Energy) Efficient
- Recycle all Materials
- Fit Form to Function
- Use Multi-functional Design
- Use low Energy Processes

3) Integrate Development with Growth
- Combine modular and nested Components
- Build from bottom up
- Self Organize

4) Adapt to changing Conditions
- Embody resilience through variation redundancy and decentralization
- Incorporate Diversity
- Use Feedback Loops
- Maintain Integrity through Self Renewal

5) Be locally Attuned and Responsive
- Use readily available energy and resources
- Cultivate cooperative relationships
- Leverage cyclic processes

6) Use life-friendly chemistry
- Do Chemistry in Water
- Build selectively with a small subset of Elements
- Break down Products into Benign Constituents

Mark-Michael Weltzl